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Hiring and Recruiting

Recruitment refers to the overall process of identifying, attracting, screening, shortlisting, and interviewing, suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists, and recruitment specialists may be tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases, public-sector employment, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies are used to undertake parts of the process. Internet-based technologies which support all aspects of recruitment have become widespread, including the use of artificial intelligence.


Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external recruitment advertising, using appropriate media such as job portals, local or national newspapers, social media, business media, specialist recruitment media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, or in a variety of ways via the internet.

Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidates who, in many cases, maybe content in their current positions and are not actively looking to move. This initial research for candidates also called name generation produces contact information for potential candidates, whom the recruiter can then discreetly contact and screen

Referral recruitment programs

Referral recruitment programs allow both outsiders and employees to refer candidates for filling job openings. Online, they can be implemented by leveraging social networks.

Employee referral

employee referral is a candidate recommended by an existing employee. This is sometimes referred to as referral recruitment. Encouraging existing employees to select and recruit suitable candidates results in

  • Improved candidate quality ('fit'). Employee referrals allow existing employees to screen, select and refer candidates, which lowers staff attrition rate; candidates hired through referrals tend to stay up to 3 times longer than candidates hired through job boards and other sources. The one-to-one direct relationship between the candidate and the referring employee and the exchange of knowledge that takes place allows the candidate to develop a strong understanding of the company, its business, and the application and recruitment process. The candidate is thereby enabled to assess their own suitability and likelihood of success, including "fitting in."

Social network referral

Initially, responses to mass-emailing of job announcements to those within employees' social networks slowed the screening process.

Two ways in which this improved are:

  • Making available screen tools for employees to use, although this interferes with the "work routines of already time-starved employees".
  • "When employees put their reputation on the line for the person they are recommending".


Screening and selection

Recruiters and agencies may use applicant tracking systems to filter candidates, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance-based assessment. In many countries, employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.

Employers are likely to recognize the value of candidates who encompass soft skills, such as interpersonal or team leadership, and the level of drive needed to stay engaged. In fact, many companies, including multinational organizations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities, are also often concerned about whether a candidate fits the prevailing company culture and organization as a whole. Companies and recruitment agencies are now turning to video screening as a way to notice these skills without the need to invite the candidates in person.


Many major corporations recognize the need for diversity in hiring to compete successfully in a global economy. The challenge is to avoid recruiting staff who are "in the likeness of existing employees “but also to retain a more diverse workforce and work with inclusion strategies to include them in the organisation.

Recruitment process outsourcing

Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) is a form of business process outsourcing (BPO) where a company engages a third-party provider to manage all or part of its recruitment process.


Internal recruitment or internal mobility refers to the process of a candidate being selected from the existing workforce to take up a new job in the same organization, perhaps as a promotion, or to provide career development opportunity, or to meet a specific or urgent organizational need. Advantages include the organization's familiarity with the employee and their competencies insofar as they are revealed in their current job, and their willingness to trust said employee. It can be quicker and have a lower cost to hire someone internally. Many companies will choose to recruit or promote employees internally. This means that instead of searching for candidates in the general labor market, the company will look at hiring one of its own employees for the position. Companies often choose to hire an internal candidate over an external candidate due to the costs of acquiring new employees, and also on the fact that companies have pre-existing knowledge of their own employees’ effectiveness in the workplace. Additionally, internal recruitment can encourage the development of skills and knowledge because employees anticipate longer careers at the company.


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